Cleanrooms are typically divided up into various types of design. The first and most prevalent cleanrooms are the bay and chase arrangement. The bay is the clean area where the clean air is driven through the filters and returned through the chases, return walls or return ducts; the chase is where the dirty end of the manufacturing equipment is placed and utilities are placed to service the clean bay. This approach can be done with either a wall return or a raised access floor return.
The second type of cleanroom approach used in large manufacturing facilities requiring class 100 and better air is the ballroom approach with a flow through floor. This approach typically has a positive plenum ceiling driving air through the entire cleanroom through a raised access floor and to a return level under the floor returning back to the plenum above.
Cleanroom manufacturing also takes place in large open space cleanroom applications for class 100,000 and class 10,000 where laminarity is not an issue as in the ballroom approach. In this case large areas have return walls or return ducts placed to drive the air back in a random flow pattern from the air delivery system either central fans or fan filters and back to the return system either ducted or plenum.
Isolation rooms and laboratories: Some industries require multiple zones of pressure control and rooms for isolation for different clean areas based on the function and the process at each area. These areas typically are divided into smaller suites involving air locks, positive and negative pressure and are based on containing contaminants in various rooms without allowing cross contamination. These rooms typically involve multiple isolated air streams using ducted supply and ducted return so that the pressure differential can be set up and accurately controlled. Control at the supply and return to each room is crucial for this.
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